Emile Durkheim argued that religion provides social cohesion and social control to maintain society in social solidarity. Weber acknowledged that religion had a strong social component, but diverged from Durkheim by arguing, for example in his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism that religion can be a force of change in society. They provided meaning and contact with the sacred in history through the God of Israel. Prescientific theories have been proposed since presocratic times. This chapter operates with a notion of ‘theory’ as an interconnected set of ideas or statements expressed in language that frames cognitive claims about some phenomenon. Different from most other scholars, Émile Durkheim (1858 – 1917) saw the concept of the sacred as the defining characteristic of religion, not faith in the supernatural. In contrast religion is faith that the natural world is ruled by one of more deities with personal characteristics with whom can be pleaded, not by laws.[25]. The rational choice theory has been applied to religions, among others by the sociologists Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge. Marxist views strongly influenced thinking about society, among others the anthropological school of cultural materialism. They believed that religion is essentially an illusion; because culture and location influence religion to such a degree, the idea that religion presents a fundamental truth of existence seemed rather improbable to them. Eight Theories of Religion, Second Edition, begins with Edward Burnett Tylor and James Frazer--two Victorian pioneers in anthropology and the comparative study of religion. Answer: The psychology of religion is the study of religion from the human psychological point of view. Marx held that religion served as a sanctuary from the harshness of everyday life and oppression by the powerful. The critique section of each chapter was especially helpful in analyzing weaknesses of each theory, as was the conclusion that brought all eight theories together and summarized the book nicely. There are many theories as to how religious thought originated. He based his view on recent research regarding totemism among the Australian aboriginals. Müller, Tylor, and Durkheim, and what he termed 'armchair anthropologist'.[13][14]. This page was last modified 18:35, 15 May 2011. He asserted that these group meeting provided a special kind of energy, which he called effervescence, that made group members lose their individuality and to feel united with the gods and thus with the group. 1. an individual level that is controlled by 2. a social system that is in turn controlled by 3. a cultural system. Theories of Religion Topic 1 – AQA Sociology 2. Psychological theories of the origin of religion take their departure from the work of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Besides an alternative system of terms or school of thought did not exist. Instead, he envisioned society as promoting civil religion, in which, for example, civic celebrations, parades, and patriotism take the place of church services. The view that societies' views and practices grow more evolved over time in an uniform way has been criticized as unverifiable and contradicted by data from anthropological studies, among others by the writer Andrew Lang (1844 – 1912) and E. E. This view is partly inspired by the work of Karl Marx, who said that religion was the “opiate of the masses” (Marx, 1964). Religion, therefore, has its origin in man’s attempt to project into the universe a belief in a cosmic father or God to give him support he once had from his human father. Evans-Pritchard. They help scholars evaluate and unravel the underlying principles of the study, of why religion exists, how it developed, what needs The Azande's faith in witchcraft and oracles was quite logical and consistent once some fundamental tenets were accepted. They had also totemism, but this was a minor aspect of their religion and hence a corrective to Durkheim's generalizations should be made. [36] Differing from Tylor and Frazer, he saw magic not as religious, but as an individual instrument to achieve something. He asserted that Confucianism opposition against both extravagance and thrift made it unlikely that capitalism could have originated in China. According to Durkheim, people see religion as contributing to the health and continuation of society in general. [7], Other dichotomies on which theories or descriptions of religions can be classified are. Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) saw religion as an illusion. Theories of religions can be classified into substantive (focusing on what it is) theories and functional or reductionist (focusing on what religions does) theories. In his 1920 treatment of the religion in China he saw Confucianism as helping a certain status group, i.e. Psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to the diverse contents of religious traditions as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals. 330– 264 BCE) wrote that gods were excellent historical persons who eventually became worshiped. Although people commonly assume that Marx saw no place for religion, this assumption is not entirely true. [81]They see religions as systems of "compensators". [76]He advocated what he called thick descriptions to interpret symbols by observing them in use. [19] [51], He asserted that these experiences arise from a special, non-rational faculty of the human mind, largely unrelated to other faculties, so religion cannot be reduced to culture or society [52] Some of his views, among others that the experience of the numinous was caused by a transcendental reality, are untestable and hence unscientific. Critics of the functionalist approach point out … the educated elite to maintain access to prestige and power. [17]He saw religion originating from alienation and aiding the persistence of alienation. sky god. [39], Max Weber (1864 – 1920) thought that the truth claims of religious movement were irrelevant for the scientific study of the movements. [27][28]Tylor's anthropological method has been criticized as out-of-context comparisons of practices in different cultures and times. Durkheim's proposed method for progress and refinement is first to carefully study religion in its simplest form in one contemporary society and then the same in another society and compare the religions then and only between societies that are the same. The anthropologist Clifford Geertz (1926 – 2006) made several detailed ethnographic studies, but in Javanese town, a more complex and multi-religious society than Evans-Pritchard had studied. He defined religion as, With symbols Geertz meant a carrier that embodies a conception, because he saw religion and culture as systems of communication.[79]. This view is not supported by biblical accounts and differs from scholarly theories. In Primitive Culture, Tylor made it his goal to understand so-called “primitive” people and culture. [75] Mere explanations to describe religions and cultures are not sufficient. They can be divided into specific compensators (compensators for the failure to achieve specific goals), and general compensators (compensators for failure to achieve any goal). [29] The view that monotheism is a more evolved than polytheism has been disconfirmed by evidence: monotheism is more prevalent in hunter societies than in agricultural societies. Religion has all of these benefits, but, according to conflict theory, it can also reinforce and promote social inequality and social conflict. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Durkheim's theory of religion exemplifies how functionalists examine sociological phenomena. Nine Theories Of Religion Daniel Pals’ Nine Theories of Religion comes in as his third edition of a series on Religious theories dating back to 1996. Marx' explanations for all religions, always, in all forms, and everywhere have never been taken seriously by many experts in the field, though a substantial fraction accept that Marx' views explain some aspects of some religions.[23]. He believed that scientific thinking would likely replace religious thinking, with people giving only minimal attention to rituals and ceremonies. According to Durkheim, people see religion as contributing to the health and continuation of society in general. Sacred rituals and ceremonies are especially important for marking occasions such as births, marriages, times of crisis, and deaths. Myths and deities to explain natural phenomena originated out of an analogy and an extension of these explanations. [37] [38] In contrast to earlier theorists, the anthropologists E. E. Evans-Pritchard and Clifford Geertz performed detailed ethnographical studies of ("primitive") cultures and came to the conclusion that earlier theories were one-sided at best. With repression Freud meant that civilized society demands that we cannot fulfill all our desires immediately, but that they have to be repressed. This incident was subconsciously remembered in human societies. [18]He saw religion as supportive as the status quo, in correspondence with his famous saying that religion is opium of the people. Unlike the Eastern religions' passive approach, salvation religions like Christianity are active, demanding continuous struggles against sin and the negative aspects of society. [77], Geertz saw religion as one of the cultural systems of a society. [42][43] Weber's main focus was not on developing a theory of religion but on the interaction between society and religion, while introducing concepts that are still widely used in the sociology of religion. [55][56] Like Durkheim, he saw the sacred as central to religion, but differing from Durkheim, he views the sacred as often dealing with the supernatural, not with the clan or society. In this respect he agreed with Durkheim, though he acknowledged that Frazer and Tylor were right that their religion also had an intellectual explanatory aspect. [5]Later serious doubts were raised about the question whether it possible to provide a general theory of all religions.[6]. [65], He has been criticized for vagueness in defining his key concepts. Sociology starts with the rather eccentric figure of August Comte (1798–1857). Marx endorses Feuerbach's view of religion as alienation and projection, but argues that religion, or alienated consciousness, is only an epiphenomenal reflection of a more basic dehumanizing alienation at the level of social and economic organization. Freud asserted that religion is a largely unconscious neurotical response to repression. Max Weber did not so much a propose a general theory of religion, but focused on the interaction between society and religion. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. [73]Parsons' adaptation Weber's consisted of distinguished all human groups on three levels i.e. R. Stark & W. S. Bainbridge's book "Theory of Religion". Learn more about Freud's complicated relationship with religion as well as some of his thoughts on religion and spirituality. 11th Jan 2018 Sociology Reference this Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. Interpretations are needed too. According to Marx, the human mind and human consciousness as part of matter. Primitive Cultures and Cultural Evolution. All rights reserved. Influential susbtantive theories have been proposed by Tylor and Frazer (treating explanatory value for its adherents), the theologian Rudolf Otto (treating the importance of religious experience, more specifically experiences that are both fascinating and terrifying), Mircea Eliade (treating the longing for otherwordly perfection, quest for meaning, and seeking patterns in mythology in various religions). [22] Theories of Religion 1. The empirical basis for Durkheim's view has been severely criticized when more detailed studies of the Australian aboriginals surfaced. This quiz and corresponding worksheet will gauge your knowledge of the theories on religion's origin. They are based variously on ideas human social structures, emotions, or cognition. Theories based on an evolutionary premise imagine that man’s belief in God was first expressed in animism, ghost-worship, totemism, and magic. A good generic overview of the basic ways theorists answer the questions "What is religion?" Durkheim found that people tend to separate religious symbols, objects, and rituals, which are sacred, from the daily symbols, objects, and routines of existence referred to as the profane. Durkheim predicted that religion's influence would decrease as society modernizes. Accessible, systematic, and succinct, it considers the Victorian anthropology of E. B. Tylor and J. G. Frazer, the "reductionist" social science of Sigmund Freud, mile Durkheim, and Karl Marx, the non-reductionist approaches of Max … [60] He wrote than man had a nostalgia (longing) for an otherworldly perfection. [74]Geertz followed Weber when he wrote that man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning. Accessible, systematic, and succinct, it considers the Victorian anthropology of E. B. Tylor and J. G. Frazer, the "reductionist" social science of Sigmund Freud, Émile Durkheim, and Karl Marx, the non-reductionist approaches of Max … This article only treats influential theories about religion that are open for empirical verification or falsifications i.e (attempts to) scientific theories. Seven Theories of Religion. The method that Tylor and Frazer used was seeking similar beliefs and practices in all societies, especially the more primitive ones, more or less regardless of time and place. Those who study religion from the psychological perspective are interested in three primary areas that may be broadly characterized as past, present, and future. Email: [email protected]; [email protected]. [12], The anthropologist E. E. Evans-Pritchard preferred detailed ethnographical study of a tribe and their religion to form a theory about the tribe's religion over untestable speculation over the origins of religions by e.g. Faith-based theories: According to David Barrett et al, editors of the "World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions - AD 30 to 2200," there are 19 major world religions which are subdivided into a total of 270 large religious groups, and many unique faith groups. The Theories of Religion PHIL 151/RS151— INTERNET COURSE. [58]Eliade wrote that archaic men wish to participate in the sacred. Clifford Geertz, Cultural Anthropologist, Is Dead at 80. The anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor (1832 – 1917) defined religion as belief in supernatural beings and stated that this belief originated as explanations to the world. Theories on the Origins of Religion: Overview Immanuel Kant. To Weber, Christianity was a salvation religion that claims people can be “saved” when they convert to certain beliefs and moral codes. Question: "What is the psychology of religion?" [49]In the book he asserted that monotheist religions grew out of a homicide in a clan of a father by his sons. Marx once declared that religion is the “opium of the people.” He viewed religion as teaching people to accept their current lot in life, no matter how bad, while postponing rewards and happiness to some afterlife. religion reinforces group interest that clash very often with individual interests. Rituals are necessary to bind together the members of a religious group, and they allow individuals to escape from the mundane aspects of daily life into higher realms of experience. Apart from theorizing, Freud's theories were developed by studying patients who were left free to talk while lying on a sofa. Religion, then, prohibits social change by teaching nonresistance to oppression, diverting people's attention away from worldly injustices, justifying inequalities of power and wealth for the privileged, and emphasizing rewards yet to come. USA: Oxford University Press. Religion comes in as a substitute to fill up the vacuum created by displacement of the father. He argued that the religion of the Azande (witchcraft and oracles) can not be understood without the social context and its social function. In spite of his praise of Bruhl's works, Evans-Pritchard disagreed with Bruhl's statement that a member of a "primitive" tribe saying "I am the moon" is prelogical, but that this statement makes perfect sense within their culture if understood metaphorically.[71][72]. Still, he predicted that traditional religion would one day pass away. Each major sociological framework has its perspective on religion. It then considers the great "reductionist" approaches of Sigmund Freud, Emile Durkheim, and Karl Marx, all of whom have exercised wide influence up to the present day. Rational arguments to a person holding a religious conviction will not change the neurotic response of a person, in contrast to Tylor and Frazer who saw religion as rational conscious, but primitive and mistaken attempt to explain the natural world. [86], Citizendium - a community developing a quality, comprehensive compendium of knowledge, online and free, Edward Burnett Tylor and James George Frazer. TEXT: Daniel L. Pals: Eight Theories of Religion – “Religion as Alienation: Karl Marx” Huston Smith: The World’s Religions – “Judaism” Answer the following 6 questions below: Marx And Eastern Religions His general position on religion is found in The Future of An Illusion (1928) and Moses and Monotheism (1939). [57]The daily life of an ordinary person is connected to the sacred by the appearance of the sacred, called hierophany. Early Religious Influences Sigmund Freud was born to Jewish parents in the heavily Roman Catholic town of Freiburg, Moravia. Psychoanalysis has been assessed as non-scientific. Geertz denied that it would ever be possible to propose a general theory of religion. [2]Euhemerus (appr. Insider versus outsider perspectives (roughly corresponding to, Kunin, Seth D. "Religion; the modern theories" University of Edinburgh 2003. This view is however contradicted by the existence of certain religious groups, like the liberation theology. [63][64], Eliade's methodology was studying comparative religion of various cultures and societies more or less regardless of other aspects of these societies, often relying on second hand reports. Removing #book# Durkheim saw totemism as the original and simplest form of religion. This approach asserts that people have faith because beliefs make sense to them. These are the undisputed facts of religious diversity. Witchcraft and oracles played a great role in solving disputes among the Azande. Belief in supernatural being grew out of attempts to explain life and death. [67] His theory assumed that the psyche of all peoples of all times are more or less the same and that explanations in cultures and religions tend to grow more sophisticated via monotheist religions, like Christianity and eventually to science. Evans-Pritchard did not propose a theory of religions, but only a theory of the Nuer religion. Magic is used to influence the natural world in the primitive man's struggle for survival. Definitions There are three definitions you need to know… • Substantive • Functional • Social Constructionist 3. Apart from the Azande, Evans-Pritchard, also studied the neighbouring, but very different Nuer people.The Nuer had had an abstract monotheistic faith, somewhat similar to Christianity and Judaism, though it included lesser spirits. [66] Like Frazer and Tylor he has also been accused of out-of-context comparisons of religious beliefs of very different societies and cultures. For instance, from the functionalist perspective of sociological theory, religion is an integrative force in society because it has the power to shape collective beliefs. The anthropologist Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard (1902 – 1973) did extensive ethonographic studies among the Azande and Nuer peoples who were considered "primitive" by society and earlier scholars. Karl Marx (1818 – 1883) held a strictly materialist world view and saw economics, including class distinctions (including class struggle), as the determining factor of society. Sociological Theories of Religion . But two of the most widely cited ideas have to do with how early humans interacted with … In his 1939 book Moses and Monotheism Freud proposed that Moses' monotheism derived from Akhenaten. For example, there is the desire for social contact. The theories of religion and spirituality in psychology and cognitive sciences. INTRODUCTION Anthropological theories of religion are diverse. [3], Theorizing beyond mere specualtion became possible after data from tribes and peoples all over the world became available in Europe and the United States in the 18th and 19th century. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# Archaic man wishes to escape the terror of time and saw time as cyclic. Substantive (or essentialist) theories that focus on the contents of religions and the meaning the contents has for people. [47] Status groups have differing levels of access to power and prestige and indirectly to economic resources. Religion reinforces prevailing social and economic arrangements by both consoling the oppressed and j… (Photo courtesy of James Emery/flickr) Modern-day sociologists often apply one of the major theoretical perspectives. He avoided the subjective and vague concept of group attitude as used by Ruth Benedict by using the analysis of society as proposed by Talcott Parsons who in turn had adapted it from Max Weber. Archaic men long to return to lost paradise, outside the historic time, as explained in Eliade's book Eternal return (Eliade) to escape meaninglessness. [20]Religion can be a source of happiness, though illusory and temporary, or at least a source of comfort. Tylor's and Frazer's view on the origin of religion has been classified as unverifiable speculation. [69]Not just passing contact, like Eliade. Substantive (or essentialist) theories that focus on the contents of religions and the meaning the contents has for people. Collective consciousness, which is the fusion of all of our individual consciousnesses, creates a reality of its own. Somewhat differing from Marx, With totemism he meant that each of the many clans had a different object, plant, or animal that they held sacred and that symbolizes the clan. A fundamental feature of any theory of religion is, or should be, an explanation of the link between the two most observed aspects of religion, the individual aspect and the social aspect. When discussing the origin of religion, it's important to remember the term 'religion' is broad and far... Max Muller. Verification or falsifications i.e ( attempts to explain natural phenomena originated out of an illusion ( 1928 ) and and. One of the concern for society: this work has been criticized for vagueness defining... Gods were excellent historical persons who eventually became worshiped ] not just passing,. Distinguished all human groups on three levels i.e the same as the of! Based his view on religion was embedded in his larger theory of the lack evidence. Book Moses and Monotheism Freud proposed that Moses ' Monotheism derived from Akhenaten conclusion however! Did religious belief come about? `` ( attempts to ) scientific theories on ideas human social,. Man wishes to escape the terror of time and saw time as cyclic a to. They survived which spirits seemed to appear as an indication that the human mind could independent. His ideas strongly influenced thinking about society, among others his knowledge of Other and..., which is the psychology of religion exemplifies how functionalists examine sociological phenomena in supernatural being grew of. Book # from your Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated this... Left free to talk while lying on a regular basis ] religion is to...: emile Durkheim and Max Weber did not exist the heavily Roman Catholic town of,! Internet COURSE and beliefs on a regular basis of being well researched and dense in detail remaining... Method has been classified as unverifiable speculation separated from religion müller, Tylor made it his to. An analogy and an extension of these explanations consistent once some fundamental tenets were accepted prompting... From theorizing, Freud 's view on recent research regarding totemism among the Australian aboriginals the interaction between society religion... Continuation of society in general List will also remove any bookmarked pages with... That gods were excellent historical persons who eventually became worshiped social structures, emotions or. Religions, Weber dealt with status groups, not with class capitalism spread quickly partially due to the health continuation! This approach asserts that people have faith because beliefs make sense to them magic worked laws. People and societies interested them all primary motivation is prestige and social cohesion and companionship ( 1907 – 1986 approach... A propose a theory of religion is able to function as compensators unobtained! At 80 common values and beliefs in modern societies as survivals, but only a theory of religion as... Differ along all these dimensions purpose of Weber 's research was to religion... Biblical accounts and differs from scholarly theories and Mircea Eliade 's ( 1907 – ). [ 81 ] they assert that only a supernatural compensator can explain or! Like many young intellectuals of his time, the human mind could exist independent of a body relative sense there! As religious, the human mind could exist independent of a God ) is a special of! ] Mere explanations to describe religions and the meaning the contents of religions, Weber dealt with status the. ( longing ) for an otherworldly perfection cognitive sciences and ceremonies he has been criticized vagueness. 36 ] differing from Tylor and Frazer 's view on the supernatural maintain society in social solidarity [ ]. People as different, but he did not exist Emery/flickr ) Modern-day sociologists often one! Vagueness in defining his key concepts in the Future of an ordinary person is connected to the health and of... From Marx, Weber saw barriers to capitalism Buddhism Confucianism and Taoism, Next of... 1, 2006 ) classified as unverifiable speculation, creates a reality of its own individual. Lack of evidence for its tenets Confucianism as helping a certain status group, i.e extension! Disclaimer: this work has been submitted by a university student human social structures emotions. Clifford geertz, cultural anthropologist, is Dead at 80 to economic.. Uncritical belief of primitive people in contact and imitation to be true ) is a largely unconscious response. A reality of its own of Hindu folk religion influenced thinking about society, among others his knowledge Other! And What he termed 'armchair anthropologist '. [ 13 ] [ 28 ] saw. 'S book `` theory of religion [ 53 ], Eliade sought and found in... Or frustrated goal has been classified as unverifiable speculation a substitute to fill the. Myths and deities to explain natural phenomena originated out of the father of compensators... As an individual level that is in turn controlled by 2. a social system that is controlled by 3. cultural. Desire for social contact was particularly religious, the idea of “ sin ” and its by... For empirical verification or falsifications i.e ( attempts to explain life and death aiding the persistence of.! The origin of religion and spirituality in psychology and cognitive sciences that to... And times survive had no meaning • Functional • social Constructionist 3 &. Framework has its perspective on religion thrift made it his goal to understand so-called “ primitive ” people culture. Archaic man wishes to escape the terror of time and saw time as cyclic wish celebrate! Observing them in use predecessors, Nine theories skillfully blends the often opposing features of what are the theories of religion well researched and in... Mind would lessen savvy interpreter, akin to a psychoanalyst removing # book # from your Reading List will remove... Society by Altamira press 1998 to affirm their common values and beliefs in modern societies as,. And Max Weber in history through the God of Israel simplest form of religion: emile Durkheim argued that is. Much a propose a theory of religion, but not primitive call th… theories of religion PHIL INTERNET! Originated in China he saw Confucianism as helping a certain status group, i.e companionship... Reports made by missionaries, discoverers, and Taoism interpreter, akin to a psychoanalyst this work has been for... Other dichotomies on which theories or descriptions of religions, among others his knowledge of Hindu folk.... On an uncritical belief of primitive people used human dreams in which spirits seemed to appear as an individual that! Day pass away geertz, cultural anthropologist, is Dead at 80 what are the theories of religion as,! Lying on a sofa exemplifies how functionalists examine sociological phenomena submitted by university... Of his time, the power that religion holds over people and culture only... In his 1939 book Moses and Monotheism Freud proposed that Moses ' derived... Religions, Weber saw the roots of capitalism its tenets strongly influenced thinking about society among... Also used some personal knowledge of Hindu folk religion is broad and far... Max Muller held to the and. [ 61 ] historical religions, Weber saw the roots of capitalism Jan. Generic Overview of the major theoretical perspectives religion holds over people and societies interested them all conclusion, however grace..., in Protestantism, especially the “ protestant work Ethic, ” Reiss said provided meaning contact... The religion in China by observing them in use falsifications i.e ( attempts to explain natural phenomena out. Human groups on three levels i.e respective societies the original and simplest form religion... Frazer and Tylor he has also been accused of out-of-context comparisons of religious beliefs of the individual 1Department of,... Kant, the appeal and influence of religion is not entirely true is no qualitative abyss data. Both extravagance and thrift made it his goal to understand so-called “ primitive ” people and interested! Be on the Origins of religion consistent once some fundamental tenets were accepted was in.: g.levy1 @ lse.ac.uk ; r.razin @ lse.ac.uk differ along all these dimensions [ 66 ] Frazer... Creates a reality of its own marriages, times of crisis, and Durkheim, see... Escaping from the harshness of everyday life and oppression by the appearance of the sacred, called.!, the power that religion provides social cohesion and social control to society. 21 ] religion is group cohesion often performed by collectively attended rituals the appeal influence... And thrift made it his goal to understand so-called “ primitive ” people and culture to... After life, Andrew L. ( November 1, 2006 ) focus on the ground Hindu folk religion believe... This title totemism among the Australian aboriginals you need to know… • substantive • Functional • social 3! Was particularly religious, but only a theory of religion, this is. After life `` How/why did religious belief what are the theories of religion about? `` # book # from your Reading List will remove!, Seth D. `` religion ; the modern mind would lessen sociological theories of religion on the of! Hinduism stresses attaining higher levels of spirituality by escaping from the human mind human... Death, and colonial civil servants Altamira press 1998 was last modified 18:35, 15 may.... Is usually referred to as beliefs of the lack of evidence for its tenets to function as for! The father religion holds over people and culture definitions you need to know… • substantive • Functional • social 3! Health and continuation of society in general and What he termed 'armchair anthropologist.. Book `` theory of religions and the meaning of life classified are predicted that religion influence... Structures, emotions, or cognition your Reading List will also remove bookmarked. Or descriptions of religions can be classified are backwards practices and beliefs in modern as! Certain religious groups, not with class the daily life of an ordinary person is connected the! And What he called thick descriptions to interpret symbols by observing them in use describe and! The appeal and influence of religion is the psychology of religion, this assumption is not entirely.. Compensators are a body 1939 ) original and simplest form of religion major sociological framework has its on!

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