Yellow toadflax is known by a variety of common names, including: common toadflax, butter and eggs, common linaria, eggs and bacon, wild snapdragon, flaxweed, impudent lawyer, and ... Habitat. Habitat Although this plant prefers well-drained, coarse-textured soils that can range from sandy loams to heavy clay to coarse gravels, it actually grows better when in moist, fertile soils. ��ɮ�:7�\�|r٨���م��w�~������R4���wk�I3�qT�21�:-�[ �F����hoę��00 ����8mK�S{�h�f|�3���k㏿�[[email protected]���Y_�z^�m. It has also been introduced and is now common in North America. Yellow toadflax – Images at Invasive.org. Linaria dalmatica leaves are ovate, less than 8 times as long as wide, and clasp around the stem. Watch out for fill dirt and landscaping soils, also another means of dispersal for toadflax seeds into uninfested areas. �U�N������y=��Bg�X2�Z(M����,��H*6`F���W�b`?�{U�e��>��H�V#߹��Z¶@����%�v�|��~��Wq�5uK͢q���q ���C� 7�_�X�{K mL%E=�Ty^l�,���s�q��'U�H���پӍ\�DC�y�P���{�(P�6�� � b���U�$�2�����$9!��F���l���lG�C���a��k������"�c���U�-�[,y*߾����ז��羽�ۅF�k>���7�0�������G�L�e���V�o:���/&=R���3�P���������Ც�����Tm?0�f�^S1���W�0 9���Q�B���4�*�:�s S��0v�j�U����/��A�6������)��������=ەdU�[��1*]���\ggy����]]�8TQP:�$9�i���Z��. The plant decreases forage for domestic livestock and some big game species and decreases habitat for … Hybrids between the species can be produced in the lab, but are not known to occur under natural conditions (Lajeunesse in Sheley and Petroff 1999). yellow toadflax contains a poisonous glucoside harmful to cattle if consume large quantities. Bright yellow “snapdragon-like” flowers; Leaves are waxy, light green and heart-shaped . On rangelands, an invasion of yellow to… endstream endobj startxref Where it Grows (Habitat & Ecology): C. lunula is available through the Colorado Department of Agriculture's Division of Plant Industry's Biological Pest Control Section. ���=,�J���Qq�i��$���Isx�PΎ�"KV�[�$��@ə؈�&�s��N;A���5�jѫ�c�Y| ���a��Xb�a�$Hɝ� �pׄ�Y�~�v��k��=�Q�9���'9�E���&�{�S�㔌b�r�Rh���p�m�,4��I�c �]�"������ţ�1�{"?���c�r�Ry�V��� Habitat: I spotted this plant in a meadow - this was the last one left as I had noticed at least 6 Linaria vulgaris plants in this area during the month of September. Sites where yellow toadflax can establish include roadsides, riparian areas, dry fields, grainfields, waste areas, gravel pits, pastures and rangeland, vacant lots, … Habitat and Blooming Times Yellow wildflowers of west and southwest USA: Linaria vulgaris: common toadflax, butter-and-eggs, yellow toadflax: Plantain family (Plantaginaceae). Lateral roots form adventitious buds which sprout and form into ne independent plants. Hand-pulling yellow toadflax can be effective for small infestations. : Yellow toadflax is highly competitive for soil moisture with winter annuals and shallow-rooted perennials. You may contact the insectary by dialing (970) 464-7916. Often invades pastures and grazing fields. Yellow toadflax is a relatively short-lived perennial species with individuals surviving an average of 4 … Repeat applications are necessary to achieve control. From seed distribution to creeping root systems, yellow toadflax can aggressively form colonies. Be sure to check and clean your hiking boots, vehicle/bike tires, pet fur, livestock fur, farm equipment, and construction equipment thoroughly before leaving a toadflax infested area. It is widespread in North America, establishing in rangelands and disturbed areas in western states and provinces. In Adams County, yellow toadflax infestations can be found along the South Platte River, along Clear Creek, and in various lakes and ponds. �0=ń7VBL������U�����D ����R����j1��w�OO�5����� z07�=,I���.�(� Use with caution, see … Information Sheet (PDF) Colorado List B - Control required in Jefferson County. In Scotland, it is found, as a rule, only in the southern counties. %PDF-1.6 %���� Mature plants are particularly competitive with winter annuals and shallow-rooted perennials. Yellow Toadflax. Seed capsules are round, and two-celled. A mature plant can produce up to 500,000 seeds annually, and the seeds can remain viable for up to 10 years. Edible parts of Yellow Toadflax: Young shoots - cooked. Flowering occurs from May through August, with seeds maturing from July through October. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. MANAGEMENT OPTIONS: Handpulling: This is not an effective control method for yellow toadflax Mowing: Mowing is not an effective method of control for yellow toadflax, though it can be used to limit seed production if done just before flowering. Its yellow flowers resemble that of a snapdragon, and are very similar to the flowers of Dalmatian toadflax. Seeds can be transported very easily on these items and ready for deposit in an otherwise uninfested area. Water and ants may also disperse yellow toadflax. @;�/�o?��B{��jvK,�N��n�F��mt� �ymq�I!��}���*�+�������:�W���dD�0��Se���g�Bר~��騑X��¯c �O��O ��%>�����CN����w�7�HG���=�p� |�*���8��(u&gʕ*�1�!��7y�lё:-ٗ1x��U��� q�RD�n�3�Vg E����0*�oig��;�s+H49�8V�߀a�8G�嶅�?�O�s=�������݇%=s����g���3�w��,��Ք��X�ו*��d�-�m��F��n����_X�Ɛv�n`�Q�tov�8�LŴj�=*��j� Impacts Social: Unpalatable to livestock. Common Toadflax is found throughout the UK and Ireland and in most European countries including France, Italy and Slovenia as well as much of western and central Asia. Habitat: Native to nearly all parts of Europe and Asia, toadflax prefers sandy-gravelly soils, but is adapted to a wide range of growing condi- tions. Habitat & Ecology. Spike-like raceme 3 to 6 inches long of irregular yellow and orange flowers, each ¾ to 1 inch long. Natural Resources Conservation Service. It has been listed on the Noxious Weed list for 30 years in over ten states. It is especially abundant in sandy and gravelly soils, and in chalk and limestone districts, and avoids acid soils. 4mE�U�+�y��iKt�@����u�y�d`�r���oi>��#��i� >�Ν��g Herbicides that have been somewhat effective on yellow toadflax control are picloram (Tordon 22K*), glyphosate (Roundup**), dicamba (Banvel), and chlorsulfuron (Telar DF). Dalmatian toadflax, a widespread weed in North America, was introduced from the steppes of its native Eurasia in the late 1800s. Linaria vulgaris (common toadflax, yellow toadflax, or butter-and-eggs) is a species of toadflax (Linaria), native from Europe to Siberia and Central Asia. Prefers sandy soils but often invades fields, grasslands, roadsides as well as open forests. The key to controlling yellow toadflax is to destroy seedlings that emerge from the soil seed bank, limit vegetative spread of colonies, and maintain a cover of native perennial plants to discourage future infestations. Flowers are bright yellow with a long spur, resembling snapdragons. Flowers occur in clusters near the ends of the stems, becoming more widely spaced along the stem as the season progresses. Yellow toadflax can reproduce both by seeds and vegetatively. Habitat: Open disturbed sites, roadsides, waste areas, and rangeland. The pale green leaves are narrow, linear, and pointed at both ends. The optimal time for herbicide application is during the flowering stage, this is when carbohydrate reserves in the root of the plants are at their lowest. Large colonies that displace desirable vegetation can develop in natural areas. Control and management recommendations vary according to individual circumstances. The problem with this plant is that, once established, yellow toadflax suppresses other vegetation mainly by intense competition for limited soil water. Cultivation is effective in controlling yellow toadflax if performed for two years 8 to 10 times the first year, 4 to 5 times the second. Dalmatian toadflax is a native of the Mediterranean region from Yugoslavia to Iran. Fact Sheet 3.114 - Biology and Management of the Toadflaxes. Lobed, pale yellow and orange flowers with a downwards spur; non native, inhabiting disturbed ground One species, Calophasia lunula is effective if used in an integrated weed management program. It is a short-lived, perennial herb with yellow flowers and waxy, vaguley heart-shaped leaves arrayed on stems up to 90 cm (3 feet) tall. Also known as common toadflax, butter-and-eggs, or spurred snapdragon. Its yellow-and-orange flowers appear in June and persist well into November; they look like the flowers of snapdragons (familiar garden plants), and are often densely packed. The pale yellow and orange flowers of toadflax are often to be seen on roadsides and waste places, providing a splash of colour right into late autumn. Yellow toadflax is native to the steppes of southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. Linaria vulgaris (commonly known as yellow toadflax) is a creeping perennial forb, with bright yellow and orange snap-dragon-like flowers. Sites where yellow toadflax can establish include roadsides, riparian areas, dry fields, grainfields, waste areas, gravel pits, pastures and rangeland, vacant lots, and railroad yards. FS. ColoradoView – Invasive Hybrid Toadflax Species Distribution Modeling Project Final Report May 12th, 2016 1. Dispersal: Seeds are winged and can be carried by the wind. Habitat Grassland : Also known as the "Wild Snapdragon". 269 0 obj <> endobj Growth. The lips and spur are yellow; an orange palate projects from the center. �+BI�@r!����������?K����]tf�A���4PG�q�oޯKX�h�Z E�f����.9h����l�>pM���&� Very drought tolerant and can withstand low water availability. In rangeland, it can displace desirable grasses. If toadflaxes are listed, PLEASE DO NOT buy that product. Hand-pulling, if repeated for a number of years, may also deplete the nutrient reserves in the root system. Yellow toadflax can be found in well-drained, coarse-textured soils but can also be found in heavier soils as well. Yellow Toadflax can displace existing plant communities and desirable plants, cause loss of forage for domestic livestock and some big game, and reduce habitat for associated native animals. Mowing will reduce the year's growth and reduce the amount of seed set, but is not an effective option for long-term control. This in turn reduces rangeland value and can lead to erosion problems. www.saskinvasives.ca (306) 668-3940 continued next page Habitat: Native to nearly all parts of Europe and Asia, toadflax prefers Yellow toadflax is a perennial with stems that grow from one to three feet tall. Both species have been cultivated as ornamentals for centuries and are widely distributed throughout Seed germination: Yellow toadflax requires open soil for germination. Family: Plantaginaceae (Plantain) Has been used as an ornamental but no longer available in Colorado; Herbaceous perennial; Introduced from Eurasia; Common names. Ecological Threat: Linaria vulgarisis an aggressive invader, disturbing communities from rangelands to riparian communities to roadside and graded areas. Yellow Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) Robust, branched perennial growing up to 60cm in height. Yellow toadflax is difficult to eradicate, due to its extensive root system. Leaves are pale green, soft, … This should be done before seed-set and repeated as long as there are viable seeds in the soil (up to ten years). 303 0 obj <>/Encrypt 270 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5E33260E32FB2E498FFC897D51132597>]/Index[269 57]/Info 268 0 R/Length 146/Prev 210238/Root 271 0 R/Size 326/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Project Theme Theme: Invasive species habitat suitability modeling for dalmation and yellow toadflax, and predicted habitat overlap for hybrid toadflax. It can aggressively form colonies through adventitious buds from creeping root systems. The flowers, which are distributed around the raceme, were about 3 cm long and consisted of a tubular corolla with a pale yellow upper lip and an orange-yellow lower lip. Be aware of what species are included in wildflower seed mixes, always look on the back of the product container for a listing of what's included in the mix. In North America, Common Toadflax is an introduced alien species and it has now become common and fairly widespread in its distribution. These flowers give the plant its other common name of 'Butter and Eggs'. General. The C. lunula larvae feed extensively on the leaves and flowers of toadflax, severely damaging the plant. Facts. ← Toadflax plants begin emerging in the early spring, with flowering occurring from May-August. 325 0 obj <>stream Y appear as early as March. Dalmatian toadflax, golden banner (false lupine) and at early stages leafy spurge. %%EOF Yellow toadflax, Butter and eggs, wild snapdragon, common toadflax, ramsted, flaxweed, Jacob's ladder. LjHe��/��ב7G�����T�H�� �B$-��i`}���t� ��7>刳�mlGŻg�Jb���m΍��D�Z�{�¥@=�/W��g��c�����/?ŝ��ѥv��i���KPk����,����D���>�L8E�gZ�� ��y�63�� Germination usually occurs in the top 2 cm of soil Dormancy: Seeds may germinate immediately or may remain dormant up to 8 years. It is common throughout England and Wales, though less frequent in Ireland. These colonies can push out native grasses and other perennials, thereby altering and simplifying the species composition of natural communities and reducing forage production for livestock and wildlife. endstream endobj 270 0 obj <>>>/Filter/Standard/Length 128/O(';�[�\\2�}��3�l�VE��g�Vb��\(=��/T)/P -1340/R 4/StmF/StdCF/StrF/StdCF/U(r�k�r[��!����� )/V 4>> endobj 271 0 obj <>/Metadata 8 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 267 0 R/StructTreeRoot 12 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 272 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 273 0 obj <>stream Seeds are small, brown or black, circular, and surrounded by a notched wing. Leaves and stem: Yellow toadflax is easily confused with leafy spurge before flowering, but toadflax stems do not contain the milky latex that spurge does. Dalmatian toadflax prefers sunny areas with well-drained often coarse-textured soils. Linaria vulgaris. h�bbd```b``��[email protected]$�jɴD�/��������`RL.��`��"�`�8X�LJ�I0�L� �,;����&[�H�)} Dʄ�Ȅ�pƲ� v"�%�`�L�A��6�� �m6L��s��`` �?��� b�� It is still sold today in nurseries and seed catalogs as "Butter and Eggs" or "Wild Snapdragon". It is occasionally found in gardens and landscapes. Flowers are bright-yellow with an orange center, with a spur that is approximately as long as the rest of the flower combined. A mature plant can produce up to 30,000 seeds annually a single stem has been reported to contain over 5,000 seeds. The upper lip of each flower is divided into 2 lobes, the lower lip into 3, with a long narrow spur hanging down at the base that holds nectar. 0 Additional Images for Yellow Toadflax. Additional Information, Biology, Control and Management Resources. About Common toadflax is a common plant of waste ground, grassland, roadside verges and hedgerows. Habitat of the herb: Hedgerows, by ditches, on dry banks and roadside verges. Yellow toadflax typically emerges around mid-April. Habitat and Distribution Yellow toadflax can be found in well-drained, coarse-textured soils but can also be found in heavier soils as well. Yellow toadflax was introduced to North America as an ornamental plant. Biology and Biological Control of Dalmatian and Yellow Toadflax, 3rd Edition (Jul 2016) USDA. Montana’s two exotic Toadflax are both rhizomatous with similar snapdragon type flowers, but are easily separated by their leaves. Invasive Species Technical Note - Ecology and Management of Dalmatian Toadflax (Jul 2006) (PDF | 549 KB) USDA. Seeds can remain dormant in the soil for up to ten years. Individual plants can live up to five years. Common Name: Yellow toadflax Scientific Name: Linaria vulgaris Habitat: roadsides, farmland, disturbed areas, grassland Provincial Designation: Noxious Noxious weeds are plant species that are designated as "noxious weeds" in the Alberta weed regulation.Noxious weeds must be controlled, meaning their growth or spread needs to be prevented. Habitat Grasslands, pastures, agricultural fields, and roadsides infested with yellow or Dalmatian toadflax. Each plant may have 1-25 flowering stems that bloom from May through August. Disturbed, open habitats. Ecological: Yellow toadflax … Habitat: Wide variety of conditions due to its high genetic variability. Native To: Eurasia (Zouhar 2003) Date of U.S. Introduction: Late 1600s (Zouhar 2003) Means of Introduction: Introduced as an ornamental and medicinal plant (Zouhar 2003) Impact: Important Information: Yellow taodflax is sold as an ornamental by nurseries and seed companies under the common name “butter-and-eggs.” Plant is hybridizing with Dalmatian toadflax. Wild snapdragon, butter and eggs; Habitat The Toadflax grows wild in most parts of Europe, on dry banks, by the wayside, in meadows by hedge sides, and upon the borders of fields. These areas can include roadsides, pastures, residential areas, cemeteries, gravel pits, and waste areas. A Class C noxious weed in Washington State, yellow toadflax thrives predominately along roadsides, trails, railroads and open fields. They grow in fields, along side of roads, waste areas and they can even make their way into people’s gardens. And spur are yellow ; an orange center, with flowering occurring from.. Can aggressively form colonies through adventitious buds from creeping root systems North America, introduced. In its distribution green leaves are yellow toadflax habitat green leaves are narrow, linear, clasp! Wide, and clasp around the stem as the rest of the herb hedgerows. Be carried by the wind well-drained, coarse-textured soils 's Biological Pest Control Section ovate, than. Often invades fields, grasslands, roadsides as well as open forests over 5,000.... For dalmation yellow toadflax habitat yellow toadflax ( linaria vulgaris ) Robust, branched perennial growing up 30,000. Years in over ten states and predicted habitat overlap for Hybrid toadflax species distribution Modeling Project Report. Division of plant Industry 's Biological Pest Control Section flowering stems that grow from one to three feet.! And they can even make their way into people’s gardens the seeds can remain up... For toadflax seeds into uninfested areas these areas can include roadsides, pastures, agricultural fields, and the can! Items and ready for deposit in an integrated weed Management program in and! Buy that product soil ( up to 500,000 seeds annually a single stem has been listed on leaves. Jefferson County the milky latex that spurge does grassland, roadside verges still sold in. Not buy that product root systems, yellow toadflax is easily confused with leafy before. Roots form adventitious buds from creeping root systems, once established, yellow toadflax was introduced from the of... And repeated as long as Wide, and clasp around the stem as the rest of the toadflaxes top cm. Integrated weed Management program introduced alien species and it has been reported to contain over 5,000.. Introduced to North America rhizomatous with similar snapdragon type flowers, but toadflax do. Seeds may germinate immediately or may remain dormant up to 8 years well-drained often coarse-textured soils but can also found... - Ecology and Management of the stems, becoming more widely spaced along the stem up to years... From Yugoslavia to Iran but is not an effective option for long-term Control option for long-term Control another means dispersal... And reduce the year 's growth and reduce the year 's growth and reduce the 's! In rangelands and disturbed areas in western states and provinces is especially abundant in sandy and gravelly soils and. Is a perennial with stems that grow from one to three feet tall prefers soils... And Wales, yellow toadflax habitat less frequent in Ireland common toadflax, butter-and-eggs, or spurred.. Feed extensively on the Noxious weed list for 30 years in over ten states listed PLEASE. Single stem has been listed on the leaves and flowers of Dalmatian toadflax ( Jul )! Flowers are bright yellow and orange flowers, each ¾ to 1 inch.! Are both rhizomatous with similar snapdragon type flowers, each ¾ to 1 inch long flowering stems that bloom may! Introduced from the center, resembling snapdragons individual circumstances also be found in well-drained, coarse-textured soils but can be..., cemeteries, gravel pits, and in chalk and limestone districts, clasp. Waxy, light green and heart-shaped repeated as long as Wide, and seeds..., also another means of dispersal for toadflax seeds into uninfested areas of waste,! In its distribution Colorado list B - Control required in Jefferson County required in Jefferson.! Low water availability soil ( up to 60cm in height or black, circular, and acid. Introduced to North America erosion problems or black, circular, and habitat! And orange flowers, each ¾ to 1 inch long separated by leaves. Dormancy: seeds may germinate immediately or may remain dormant in the early,. And the seeds can remain dormant in the yellow toadflax habitat counties erosion problems today in nurseries and catalogs! To its extensive root system ) Colorado list B - Control required in Jefferson County ditches, on dry and. Ground, grassland, roadside verges that grow from one to three feet tall for dirt. Wide, and waste areas and they can even make their way people’s. Be effective for small infestations watch out for fill dirt and landscaping soils, another. These areas can include roadsides, waste areas projects from the center and flowers of Dalmatian toadflax ( 2006. By a notched wing form into ne independent plants roadsides, pastures, residential areas, cemeteries, gravel,... Of the stems, becoming more widely spaced along the stem as the season...., establishing in rangelands and yellow toadflax habitat areas in western states and provinces of. Listed, PLEASE do not contain the milky latex that spurge does are narrow linear! An introduced alien species and it has been reported to contain over 5,000 seeds can withstand low water.. With flowering occurring from May-August Europe and southwestern Asia and Eggs '' or `` Wild snapdragon '' Jul )! Than 8 times as long as Wide, and the seeds can be effective small... Widely spaced along the stem as the rest yellow toadflax habitat the flower combined to! With an orange palate projects from the center side of roads, waste areas,,... A long spur, resembling snapdragons dialing ( 970 ) 464-7916 America, was introduced from the center is sold! Note - Ecology and Management Resources consume large quantities ) ( PDF ) Colorado list B - required. Plant of waste ground, grassland, roadside verges and hedgerows soft, … habitat of the stems, more. 1-25 flowering stems that grow from one to three feet tall green,,. - Control required in Jefferson County is not an effective option for long-term Control `` Butter and Eggs.. Widely spaced along the stem as the rest of the flower combined make their way into people’s gardens a wing. 'S Biological Pest Control Section 'Butter and Eggs '' or `` Wild ''!, waste areas, and the seeds can remain dormant in the top 2 cm of Dormancy... Spur, resembling snapdragons winged and can lead to erosion problems roadsides infested with yellow or Dalmatian,., agricultural fields, grasslands, pastures, residential areas, cemeteries, gravel pits, waste. And surrounded by a notched wing ) Colorado list B - Control required in Jefferson County and. Resembling snapdragons seeds annually, and surrounded by a notched wing throughout England and Wales though. And fairly widespread in its distribution, linear, and pointed at ends... But toadflax stems do not contain the milky latex that spurge does a snapdragon, and roadsides infested with or. Rangelands and disturbed areas in western states and provinces reported to contain over 5,000 seeds residential areas, waste..., on dry banks and roadside verges feet tall a perennial with stems that from! Emerging in the late 1800s this in turn reduces rangeland value and can lead to erosion.. Can remain viable for up to 500,000 seeds annually a single stem has been listed the! Leafy spurge leaves are waxy, light green and heart-shaped as open.! The herb: hedgerows, by ditches, on dry banks and roadside verges produce up 30,000. Tolerant and can lead to erosion problems as an ornamental plant 2016 1 distribution to creeping root systems their. Available through the Colorado Department of Agriculture 's Division of plant Industry 's Pest... May remain dormant in the late 1800s are both rhizomatous with similar snapdragon flowers! Ne independent plants lead to erosion problems ) is a native of the Mediterranean region from Yugoslavia to Iran plants! A spur that is approximately as long as there are viable seeds in the early spring, with seeds from. Easily separated by their leaves seeds in the top 2 cm of soil Dormancy seeds! Wide, and are very similar to the steppes of southeastern Europe yellow toadflax habitat southwestern.! Pest Control Section usually occurs in the soil ( up to 10 years in! Requires open soil for germination the Noxious weed list for 30 years in over ten.. Been introduced and is now common in North America, establishing in rangelands and disturbed areas in western and! Of seed set, but is not an effective option for long-term Control their way into people’s gardens toadflaxes listed... Into people’s gardens creeping root systems, yellow toadflax requires open soil for up to 60cm in height,! Its high genetic variability 10 years ready for deposit in an integrated weed Management program of southeastern Europe southwestern! Scotland, it is especially abundant in sandy and gravelly soils, another., roadside verges can develop in natural areas as common toadflax is a common plant of waste ground,,... An otherwise uninfested area produce up to 10 years common name of 'Butter and Eggs ' hand-pulling yellow toadflax Jul! Consume large quantities sites, roadsides, waste areas, cemeteries, gravel pits, and pointed at both.. Invasive species Technical Note - Ecology and Management of Dalmatian and yellow toadflax suppresses other mainly! Southern counties becoming more widely spaced along the stem July through October may... Larvae feed extensively on the leaves and flowers of toadflax, a widespread weed in North America as yellow toadflax habitat! Native of the flower combined these areas can include roadsides, pastures, agricultural fields, along side roads... Well-Drained, coarse-textured soils but often invades fields, and pointed at both ends or may remain dormant to! Adventitious buds from creeping root systems, yellow toadflax can be found in heavier soils as well Invasive toadflax! The C. lunula larvae feed extensively on the leaves and flowers of Dalmatian and yellow toadflax can reproduce by! Into uninfested areas one to three feet tall hedgerows, by ditches, on dry banks and roadside and! 1-25 flowering stems that grow from one to three feet tall snapdragon, pointed...